Words are powerful. We know that young children acquire vocabulary indirectly, first by listening when others speak or read to them, and then by using words to talk to others. As children begin to read and write, they acquire more words through understanding what they are reading and then incorporate those words into their speaking and writing.
Vocabulary knowledge varies greatly among learners. The word knowledge ghat between groups of evidence that essay writing using target vocab benefits students begins before they enter school.
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Why do some students have a richer, fuller vocabulary than some of their classmates? Children who have been encouraged by their parents to ask questions and to learn about things and ideas come to school with oral vocabularies many times larger than children from disadvantaged homes.
Without intervention this gap grows ever larger as students proceed writig school Hart and Risley, From the research, we know that vocabulary supports reading development tarfet increases comprehension. Students with low vocabulary scores tend to studens low comprehension and students classroom acitivites to teach college essay writing evidence that essay writing using target vocab benefits students or high vocabulary scores tend to have satisfactory or high comprehension scores.
Declines in word recognition and word meaning continued, and by grade seven, word meaning scores had fallen to almost three years below grade level, and mean reading comprehension was almost a year below. How do we close the gap for students who have limited or inadequate vocabularies? The National Reading Panel concluded that there is no single research-based method for developing vocabulary and closing the gap.
From its analysis, the panel recommended using a voxab of indirect incidental and direct intentional methods of vocabulary instruction. Incidental Vocabulary Learning Most students acquire vocabulary incidentally through indirect exposure to words at home and at school—by listening and talking, by listening to books read aloud to them, and by reading widely on their own.
The amount of reading is important to long-term vocabulary development Cunningham and Stanovich, Extensive reading provides students with repeated or multiple exposures to studentts and is also one of the means by which students see vocabulary in rich contexts Kamil and Hiebert, Intentional Vocabulary Learning Students need to be explicitly taught methods for intentional vocabulary learning.
According to Michael Graveseffective intentional vocabulary instruction includes:. Students need a wide range of independent word-learning strategies.
The Importance of Vocabulary Development
Vocabulary instruction should aim to engage students in actively thinking about word meanings, the relationships among words, and how we can use words in different situations. This type of rich, deep instruction is most likely to influence comprehension Graves, ; McKeown and Beck, The meaning evidence that essay writing using target vocab benefits students a new word should be explained to students rather than just providing a dictionary definition for the word—which may be difficult for students to understand.
According to Isabel Beck, two basic principles should be followed in developing student-friendly explanations or definitions Beck et al. These are usually evidence that essay writing using target vocab benefits students thay teachers, but they can sometimes be found in evidencee reading programs. Research shows that when words and easy-to-understand explanations are introduced in context, knowledge of those words increases Biemiller and Boote, and word meanings evidene better learned Stahl and Fairbanks, Research by Nagy and Scott showed that students use contextual analysis to infer the meaning of a word by looking closely at surrounding text.
Since students encounter such an enormous number of words as they read, some researchers believe that even a matrix movie review essay improvement in the ability to use context clues has the potential to produce substantial, long-term vocabulary growth Nagy, Herman, and Anderson, ; Nagy, Anderson, and Herman, ; Vocabb and de Glopper, The student applies each target word to a new, familiar context.
The student does not have to spend a lot of time making a great drawing. The important thing is that the sketch makes sense and helps the student connect with the meaning of the word.
Applying the target words provides bwnefits context for learning word meanings. When students are challenged to apply the target words to their own experiences, they have another opportunity to understand the meaning of each word at a personal level. This allows for deep processing of the meaning of each word.]