Research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities

Explicit instruction in basic writing skills

Students in grade school through postsecondary education need to demonstrate sufficient writing abilities to meet literacy-related curriculum demands and to succeed in most of their classes, especially those which use writing as a primary mechanism for assessing achievement.

They also are expected to use writing as a means to facilitate learning of different subjects and to deepen their understanding of themselves and the world around them Shanahan, Beyond school, there are a number of occasions that require individuals to engage in writing for employment and job promotion e. Moreover, many individuals of all ages regularly use writing as a tool to writing about problems with identity college essay with others research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities texting, blogging, emailing, and so forth, which helps permit full participation in today's social and civic activities.

research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities

Because of this complexity, many individuals find writing extremely challenging and do not perform well on important leaarning tasks. For students with learning disabilities LDit is expected that they are taught and challenged to meet the same writing standards as their typically developing peers, which will ultimately contribute to better life quality for these students with LD in terms of school performance, employment, and civic engagement.

Context for regular, meaningful writing

Students with LD typically find it very challenging to meet the language and writing demands specified in the CCSS: They have been found to demonstrate poor writing performance on almost every aspect of writing assessed, including quality, ideation, organization, vocabulary, sentence fluency, spelling, grammar, handwriting, and genre elements e. They also spend less time planning ahead of and during drafting of text.

Stoddard and MacArthur observed instances where students with LD did not readily revise their written texts. Most revisions were superficial, i.

Issue List

This difficulty with revising reflects the fact that students with LD a tend to lack sufficient skills and strategies to identify mismatches between intentions and actual text and execute fixes, b display a reluctance to revise, baser c tend to lack executive mental control to "manage revising along with the other cognitive, linguistic, physical, and motivational operations involved with composing text" Troia,p.

They lack self-regulation skills i. Two types of evidence-based writing practices that could effectively address the writing difficulties of students bazed LD are strategy instruction and genre study see Table 1 for a brief description of the similarities and differences between the two approaches.

It is important disabillities note that these two writing instructional practices are rooted in different writing models.

Strategy instruction stems from Hayes's cognitive model of writing that focuses on the cognitive and motivational aspects of writing, while genre study reflects Russell's model that emphasizes the importance of context for writing and research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities as a communicative structure.

That communicative structure is subject to change, depending on context.

research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities

In the following paragraphs, we discuss each of these evidence-based writing instructional practices and, using examples, explain the procedures associated with each base demonstrate how to implement them to support students' expository writing, the kind of writing that is pervasive across the curriculum. Struggling writers learn strategies to plan, compose, edit, and revise their papers with strategy instruction.

research based essay writing strategies for students with learning disabilities

Strategy instruction also has been found to contribute to better quality of ofr written by students with LD across different genres such as stories and personal narratives, expository papers, and persuasive essays e. Different strategies have been adopted in writing instruction to help struggling students learn to effectively write texts across different genres such as stories, expository papers, and persuasive essays.

It is worth noting that the strategy instruction described here incorporates both writing and self-regulation strategies. There are six steps to teach this strategy:. The teacher activates students' background knowledge by a discussing with students the importance studengs learning the strategy to help with writing good compare-contrast essays and b analyzing good and poor essay examples in terms of how each of the compare-contrast text structure elements in TREE is represented or missing in the essays.]